How to do Birdwatching? A Beginner’s Guide

Birds are undoubtedly among the most fascinating manifestations of nature. Their flight, migrations, plumage, and colors have always captivated human attention. Birdwatching is the observation of birds in their natural habitats, practiced by many for recreational purposes, and can also be used as a monitoring technique for these marvelous animals. Birdwatching offers a unique opportunity to appreciate the beauty of birds, learn about their behavior and habitats, and contribute to scientific research and conservation efforts.

Birds can be observed in various habitats across every continent, excluding Antarctica. They can be found in urban areas, personal gardens, mountains, and even out at sea. This wide distribution makes birdwatching an affordable and accessible hobby for everyone, regardless of age or location. Whether you live in a bustling city or a remote countryside, you can engage in birdwatching and appreciate the diverse species that exist in your surroundings.

What do you need

To practice birdwatching, the only truly essential tools are two: binoculars and a field guide for identification. As a naturalist, I also recommend bringing a notebook to jot down the names of the bird species you spot and any identification tips. This can be especially helpful if you are birdwatching with someone more experienced, as it allows you to learn and improve your recognition skills.


A pair of binoculars for birdwatching should have some basic characteristics that allow the observer to perfectly distinguish all the details of the birds.

Each instrument is defined with an abbreviation consisting of two numbers separated by the “X” sign, where the first value indicates the magnification index and the second number represents the diameter of the lens (in millimeters). In the specific case of birdwatching, the magnification range typically falls between 8x and 12x. Note that higher the magnification number, the heavier and bulkier the device will be. Versatile and easily portable, 10X binoculars provide excellent magnification capabilities while occupying minimal space due to their compact size. They can be effortlessly carried over the shoulder without any hassle.

On the other hand, the size of the objective lens also needs to be balanced to avoid functional imbalances that would inevitably affect the overall optical performance. As known, the millimeters of the lens diameter are proportional to the amount of light radiation that reaches the eye and consequently to the image definition. Therefore, it is necessary to choose instruments equipped with a sufficiently large objective lens, but always in relation to the magnification number.

A 10×40 binocular is considered undoubtedly the ideal choice for birdwatchers as its balance is nearly perfect. To start, I was recommended a 10×42 binocular, and it has proven to be a perfect choice! That binocular has been a faithful companion for my observations since I started birdwatching in 2014.

Field guide

There is a wide range of field guides available for birdwatching, catering to different preferences and needs. On one end, there are simple, foldable guides that offer basic information and are easy to carry. These guides are convenient for quick reference and identifying common bird species. On the other hand, there are more detailed field guides that provide comprehensive information about a wide range of bird species. These guides often include in-depth descriptions, illustrations, range maps, and additional details about behavior, habitat.

In addition, field guides come in different formats. Some guides rely on photographs to represent bird species, while others utilize detailed illustrations. Personally, I have always preferred the latter type. Although they may appear overwhelming to beginners due to the wealth of information, these guides make identification easier by highlighting distinct characteristics and markings that distinguish one species from another, as well as showcasing the various plumages of a species (juvenile, male, female) and other details.

At first, narrowing down the field to the exact species you want to identify can be difficult. However, as you gain experience and become more acquainted with the process of using the guide, it becomes easier to navigate and locate the desired species. With time and practice, you’ll develop the skills and familiarity needed to effectively identify the species you’re looking for.

Where to begin

Now you have the right tools, you need a place where to starts whatching birds.

Urban areas might not be the first places that come to mind for birdwatching, but cities can surprise you with their diverse avian populations and accessible green spaces. City gardens serve as oases for birds amidst the concrete jungle, providing them with food, shelter, and nesting sites. City gardens often feature a mix of native and ornamental plants, creating a habitat that appeals to different bird species. You can expect to see a variety of common urban birds such as sparrows, finches, pigeons, and starlings. However, with a little patience and keen observation, you may also spot rarer species such as warblers, thrushes, and even birds of prey that make occasional appearances.

Aside from city gardens, parks, nature reserves, and waterfront areas are often frequented by both resident and migratory bird species offer birdwatching opportunities. In nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries, there is a popular practice of setting up covered hideouts to observe wildlife in a discreet and non-intrusive manner. These structures are strategically placed in areas frequented by animals, offering a unique opportunity for nature enthusiasts and photographers to get up close and personal with various species. are designed to blend harmoniously with the natural surroundings, often constructed using materials that mimic the local environment. They are equipped with small openings or viewing slits that allow observers to observe and photograph wildlife without disturbing their natural behavior. These covered hideouts serve multiple purposes. They offer protection from weather conditions, conceal the presence of observers, and provide an opportunity to study wildlife behavior, migratory patterns, and breeding habits.It’s essential to respect certain guidelines while using covered hideouts. Visitors are encouraged to minimize noise, avoid sudden movements, and refrain from littering or disturbing the natural environment. Respecting the wildlife’s space and maintaining a safe distance is crucial to ensure their well-being and the integrity of the ecosystem.

Let’s start with bird identification

Habitat and season

It’s important to consider that different bird species inhabit specific habitats, such as forests, wetlands, grasslands, or coastal areas. Before diving into random identifications, it’s advisable to study the bird species that frequent a particular area and narrow down the possibilities. Conduct thorough research to familiarize yourself with the common species in that location: consider the geographic location and range of the bird species. Certain species may have specific distributions and may be more commonly found in certain regions or habitats. Fortunately, many guide contain distribution maps that can help you to narrow down the field of possibilities.

Keep in mind that while you may spot some resident species throughout the year, many other birds are seasonal, appearing only in summer, winter, or during spring and autumn migrations. Furthermore, during breeding, migration, or wintering seasons, some bird species undergo distinct changes in plumage, behavior, or vocalizations.

Shape and size

Categorizing birds into different groups (or families) is one of the fundamental skills that birdwatchers acquire. The shape of a bird plays a significant role in its identification. Each species has a unique silhouette or outline that can help birdwatchers quickly differentiate between different types of birds. Understanding bird shapes is crucial for both novice and experienced birdwatchers, as it can be particularly useful in challenging weather conditions when colors may not be clearly visible or distinguishable. In situations where visibility is compromised due to factors like bad weather or distance, relying on shape-based identification becomes even more important. By focusing on the distinctive outlines, proportions, beak shapes, wing structures, and other physical characteristics, experienced birdwatchers can still accurately identify and differentiate bird species, even when color details are not readily apparent.

Some key aspects of bird shape to consider are:

  1. Size: The overall size of a bird can provide valuable information when identifying birds, but it’s essential to be cautious as conditions can sometimes be misleading. When birds are soaring overhead or flying past, their apparent size can be deceiving. Factors such as distance, perspective, and the bird’s position in relation to the observer can make it challenging to accurately assess their true size. Comparing the bird’s size to familiar objects or other bird species can help determine if it is small, medium, or large.
  2. Body Proportions: Pay attention to the proportions of the bird’s body, including the length of the neck, legs, and tail. Some birds may have distinctive features, such as a long neck (like a heron) or a short tail (like a sparrow).
  3. Bill Shape: The shape and size of a bird’s bill can offer important clues about its feeding habits. For example, birds with long, thin bills are often specialized for probing flowers for nectar, while birds with sharp, hooked bills are typically carnivorous.
  4. Wing Shape: Notice the shape and length of the wings, as it can indicate the bird’s flying style. Birds with long, pointed wings, like raptors, are built for soaring, while birds with shorter, rounded wings, like sparrows, are better suited for quick maneuvering in dense vegetation.
  5. Tail Shape: The tail shape can vary significantly among bird species. Some birds have long, forked tails (like swallows), while others have short, squared tails (like finches). The tail shape can provide important visual clues during identification.
  6. Posture and Stance: Pay attention to how the bird holds itself while perched or in flight. Some birds have an upright posture (like herons), while others have a more horizontal or hunched stance (like ducks). Posture can help in narrowing down possible species.

Field marks

Once you have evaluated the habitat and considered the bird’s shape to determine its group or family, you can delve deeper into the identification process and attempt to assign the bird to a specific species. This involves examining finer details and characteristics of the bird, such as plumage patterns, beak shape, eye color, wing structure, and other distinguishing features that enable you to differentiate one species from another. By analyzing these specific traits and comparing them to field guides, bird identification resources, you can make a more accurate determination of the species you are observing.

For example, pay attention to:

  1. Bill Shape and Size: the shape, size, and curvature of the bird’s bill can vary significantly between species and relate to their feeding preferences and adaptations
  2. Plumage: the color patterns, markings, and overall appearance of the bird’s feathers. Look for any unique or contrasting colors, distinctive patterns, wing bars, or other notable markings
  3. Facial Features: Take note of the bird’s facial characteristics, such as the shape and color of the bill, the presence of facial disks, eyerings, or distinctive facial patterns
  4. Legs and Feet: Examine the color, length, and structure of the bird’s legs and feet
  5. Flight Patterns: Observe the bird’s flight behavior and patterns, including wingbeats, gliding, or hovering. Some birds have characteristic flight styles that can aid in identification

songs identification

Vocalizations play a significant role in bird identification. Birds produce a wide range of calls, songs, and vocalizations that vary in pitch, rhythm, duration, and complexity. Paying attention to these vocalizations can provide important clues for identifying bird species. Some species have unique or distinctive songs that can be used as a reliable indicator of their presence. Others may have specific calls for communication, mating, or territorial defense. By familiarizing yourself with the vocalizations of different bird species through recordings, field guides, or online resources, you can enhance your ability to identify birds by their distinct sounds. Additionally, learning to recognize the patterns and variations in bird vocalizations can also provide insights into their behavior and interactions with other birds.

Birds identification like a pro

To accelerate your learning process, it can be beneficial to accompany someone with expertise in birdwatching or join a birdwatching group. By spending time with more experienced birdwatchers, you can gain valuable insights, tips, and techniques for identifying different bird species. They can share their knowledge, help you refine your observation skills, and provide guidance on recognizing key features and behaviors. Joining a birdwatching group or participating in birdwatching outings can also offer opportunities for collaborative learning and the chance to discuss sightings and observations with fellow enthusiasts. Engaging with a community of birdwatchers can foster a supportive and educational environment, allowing you to learn from their experiences and expedite your progress in becoming a proficient birdwatcher.

At the beginning, birdwatching can have its challenges, especially if you are new to the activity. Identifying bird species may take some time and practice as you familiarize yourself with their distinct features, behaviors, and vocalizations. Remember that birdwatching is not just about identification, but also about appreciating and observing birds in their natural habitats.

be patient with yourself, and enjoy the thrill of discovering new species and observing their fascinating behaviors. With time and practice, you’ll become more proficient and find even greater joy in the world of birdwatching.

Useful links

Here is a list of useful links comprehensive of checklists for birds in any country.

Avibase – The World Bird Database

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